The Amylase

Effect Specific Amylases

The also biotechnically fabricable  α-amylase divides the a (1-4)- glucose bonds in starches. The result is dextrin and from that maltose, glucose and derived oligosaccharide. In humans there are five iso-forms of a-amylase: two are saliva amylases and two are pancreatic amylases.

β-Amylase is found in bacteria and plants, but not directly in humans. It divides one maltose molecule from the next at the end of the chain. The more molecular chain ends that are found, the better the β-amylase works.

The γ-amylase is only found in fungi. It divides one β-D-Glucose molecule from the molecular chain end. It is „related” to the human maltase-glucoamylase that is found in the pancreas but is not α-amylase.

The enzyme amylase is responsible for the break down of polysaccharides, such as starch into short-chained sugar molecules. Amylase is present in the saliva and pancreatic fluid of human organisms. The amylase in saliva is also for the effect that makes breads sweet after long chewing.

The Structure of the α-Amylase

The α-amylase is found in different life forms in a variety of forms.  Humans have Iso-forms (1A, 1B, 1C, 2A, 2B) in its saliva. The molecular weight is 57767.8 The primary structure is made up of 511 amino acids with the following composition:

Ala (A) 27 5.3% Arg (R) 28 5.5% Asn (N) 41 8.0% Asp (D) 35 6.8% Cys (C) 12 2.3% Gln (Q) 12 2.3% Glu (E) 20 3.9% Gly (G) 52 10.2% His (H) 12 2.3% Ile (I) 28 5.5% Leu (L) 27 5.3% Lys (K) 24 4.7% Met (M) 11 2.2% Phe (F) 29 5.7% Pro (P) 22 4.3% Ser (S) 33 6.5% Thr (T) 23 4.5% Trp (W) 19 3.7% Tyr (Y) 21 4.1% Val (V) 35 6.8%


The α-amylase in Bazillus subtilis has 619 amino acids in the following primary structure:

Methionine can be found, marked blue, at 11 points. The amino acids marked in red are mainly responsible for the catalytic effect in the active center.