Calothrix crustacea (337)

Calothrix C. lives in the soil, on the island of Lavsa (Croatia) and was discovered (Gardners) in 1985. This strain grows very slowly in groups and clumps. The hyphae of Calothric C. are thicker at the base than at the ends. In addition “false branching” is also evident in these cultures. In addition, vegetative cells are usually cylindrically or barrel shaped, these can also be slim or elongated. Calothrix C. are always yellow or brown colored, have clearly recognizable slime capsules.. The Heterozysten are elliptical or spherically and are attached at the base of the filaments. Also Akineten are produced, thick-walled cells filled with reserve materials, which make a survival in drought conditions possible.

Anabaena frame.

Most of this family live in fresh water, though some are found in saltwater. The kinds live the pelagic zones of the sea as plankton, on the seabed, and on aquatic plants in waters with low and high nutrient levels. Brackish wetlands also provide a habitat to the members of this family as well.

Anabaena forms normal, single-row filaments in shades of bluish-green, gray-green or yellow green. The individual cells are spherical or cylindrical. The filaments form in either straight chains or in loop-the-looping curly cues. The filaments can be surrounded by a slime or biofilm. Growth takes place by cell divisions within the filament asexually. They can

change their buoyancy by adjusting the pressure or gas content of their vacuoles. Different Anabaena form symbioses with other plants, for example the algae fern Azolla, and supply these with nitrogen. Some kinds can form nerve toxins like Anatoxin, which can be fatal to larger

(Illustration 1, specimen A)
For the growth curve the extinction value drops because of the clumping of the algae. Reason: The ray of light from the photometer would have to hit exactly one lump, in order to obtain a correct extinction value

ür Limnologie, Mondsee

Tolypothrix cf. byssoidea (338)

animals. There are approximately 100 species of Anabaena.

In our project we examined four specific types of Anabaena for their growth density, nitrogen content, and weight, (when dry).

The Anabaena cylindrica (PCC7122) was discovered in the year 1939 in Cambridge (Great Britain).

Tolypothrix cf. b. grows on the soil under the coniferous forests of the island of Lavsa (Croatia) (gardners 1985). This genus grows in groups, but forms no clumps, however forms flocullate and have very long generation times, as is to be seen in illustration 2.

(Illustration 2, sample B)

This genus lives on aquatic plants and on the bottom

of ponds of lakes and produces single filiments. (Illustration 7, sample E)

Anabaena (PCC 6309) was discovered in Utrecht (the Netherlands). It prospers best in fresh water, produces very many Heterozysten and has very high growth densities. (Illustration 8, sample F)

Tolypothrix cf. b. has long, cylindrical or short, barrel shaped cells, which are colored olive, green, yellow,

The Anabaena (PCC73105) was likewise discovered in the year 1939 in Cambridge (Great Britain) in a

or red. The filaments are covered with a biofilm. Additionally, in the biofilm there are often hypha which can be grey - blue, or yellowish brown. As is the case for Calothrix C. also "false branching connections between organisms are also created". Heterozysten are found only at the base of the

hyphae and never on their ends. These are roundish, cylindrically or disk shaped. Akineten are rarely found in contrast to Calothrix C.

http: // silicase cchidisk. conncoll. edu/Lucid Keys /Carolina_ Key/html /Tolypothrix_ Main. html
Dr. Rainer Kurmayer, Institut für Limnologie, Mondsee

pond. It forms clumps and grows very badly at 28°C. At other temperatures it is characterized however by rapid reproduction, and short generational lifespans. (Illustration 9, sample G)

Anabaena cylindrica (PCC 7938)

Anabaena cylindrica (PCC 7938) was discovered also in Utrecht (the Netherlands) and produces, under the microscope, individual filaments and clumps. (Illustration 10, sample H)

Dr. Rainer Kurmayer,

Nostoc (BS363)

This genus lives on the soil, with specialized

Institut for limnology, moon lake
Institut Pasteur, Paris: "Pasteur Culture Collection OF Cyanobacteria"

cultures also found on the roots of trees. In addition, there are species, which live in water, both salt and fresh. Many Nostoc breeds live in symbiosis with higher plant forms like mushrooms and mosses. It grows and connects both through biofilm and individual hyphae connections,

but rarely forms into clumps. Colonies are spherical. These consist of the cell filaments, surrounded by a gelatinous covering. Also Akineten are produced.

In our project we experimented with four different kinds of Nostoc, which are described briefly in the next text.

Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (497)

The bacterium Aphanizomenon flos aquae lives in fresh waters such as lakes and pools. This sample was discovered in the year 2005 in Moorlands Lake (Canada). This genus forms individual filaments and

flocullated. It does not have a particular fast growth rate, and also produces the much feared algae bloom. By carp breeders it is falsely associated with high nutrient levels in the body of water. However, it unfailingly represents a sign of over abundance of the element phosphorus. (Illustration 11, sample I)

Nostoc frame (341) exhibits individual filaments under the microscope and forms no lumps. This specific

Studies of the species Aphanizomenon flos aquae showed that the buoyancy of the bacteria can be

genus is as of yet unnamed. It was discovered 1943 in Switzerland in the soil. (Illustration 3, sample D)

Nostoc commune (V159) lives exactly like the kinds Calothrix and Tolypothrix already discussed, in the soil and was discovered in 1975 in the dolomites

of South Tirol. And, can survive in many different soil types. This Cyano-Bacterium has only individual filaments and grows clumps. (Illustration 4, sample C)

adjusted by the amount of light it receives. Furthermore the bacterium can move itself by sliding. How this works is completely unknown. The cells spread out in threadlike colonies of 20 to 50 cell

lengths, which can join together and are visible to the naked eye, float in the water and resemble larch needles.



Nostoc punctiforme (PCC 73102) grows in small colonizes. Under the microscope no lumps are

recognizable. This breed was discovered 1973 in Australia. Nostoc p. lives on the roots of Cycads (A relative of the palm.). For the plant this is very advantageous since the bacterium binds the nitrogen from the air and brings it directly into the soil

near the roots. The relationship between the plant and bacteria is symbiotic. (Illustration 5, sample J)

Nostoc muscorum's (PCC 7120) the exact habitat and lifestyle of this specimen are unknown. Under the microscope only individual filaments and also clumps are recognizable. Only very few Heterozysten are formed. (Illustration 6, sample K)
(All four samples reproduced during out study.)

Dr. Rainer Kurmayer, Institut for limnology, moon lake
Institut Pasteur, Paris: "Pasteur Culture Collection OF Cyanobacteria"

Sources generally:
L. Geitler 1925. Die Süsswasserflora Deutschlands, Österreichs und der Schweiz
Institut Pasteur, Paris : “Pasteur Culture Collection ofCyanobaczeria“
microbewiki.kenyonGärtner, G (1985: The culture collection of algae at the Botanical Institute of Innsbruck
Institut Pasteur, Paris : “Pasteur Culture Collection of Cyanobaczeria“
www.silicasecchidisk. conncoll. edu
Gärtner, G (1985: The culture collection of algae at the Botanical Institute of Innsbruck